Sunday, July 25, 2010

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Assessment

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


A. Background
Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole. According to the Academic Exchange Quarterly: "Studies of a theoretical or empirical nature (including case studies, portfolio studies, exploratory, or experimental work) addressing the assessment of learner aptitude and preparation, motivation and learning styles, learning outcomes in achievement and satisfaction in different educational contexts are all welcome, as are studies addressing issues of measurable standards".
In the school Assessment used by teacher the to menasure the student’s knowledge. As long as semester espeacially even semester students learn english language. It’s from learn grammar and vocabulary of english language. English language as international language and foreigh language in Indonesia become easy and difficult to learn of people especially student from elementary school, junior high school and senior high school and also student university will like that. English language As long as one semester the students learn English Language will give test their konowledge. So the related assessment with tests are assessment used meansures students’ knowledge about English language and the tests as materials that becomed questions. It could in form multiple choice or essey. In this tests is to to know konwledge or whether their skill have be increased. With the multiple choice tests students could choose where right answers because more choose, and just students that have learn the material could choose right answers and students haven’t learn can choose right answers. So the o multiple choice tests really good to know their English language’s skill. After the test have doing of the teachers to students, the teacher to assess result of the students’ test. the assess would like in reading’s assessment, speaking’s assessment, listning assessment, and writing’s assessment. Because they included grammar, vocabulary, and linguistik in english language.
The students study english language as long as some semester from elementary school, junior high school and senior high school and also students university felt English language are easy and difficult to used. multiple choice tests are one of examination to used to know students’ skill or knowledge. multiple choice tests very easy to know their skill, because multiple choice test consist of questions and the answers. The answers can choose where right answers and false answers, answers divided into four or more quentions that marked with letter like A, B, C, D, and E. the letters there are one right question and false question. If students well study english language as long as semester could fill right answers and students aren’t well study english language and exactly they aren,t pay attention and understand, so there are students fill bad answers.
The area of test, I focus on english language school. They are :
 Listning Skill is study to hear the native speakers speak. Students could hear it through audio tape, watch tv and hear radio. Listen the language could like song and dialogue. So, listning skill using song and dialogue as multiple choice tests.
 Speaking skill is study to speak between one person and other person, and to tell story. In this speaking the students have to learn using good spelling and pronounciation.
 Reading skill is study to how well read story or dialogue. Students learn where’s comma, point, interjection mark, and the grammar that used in story, dialogue in the book, memo, letter, etc.
 Writing skill is study to write using well grammar, make The structure of sentences, etc.
Language area in the objective tests consist of :
 Grammar using in multiple choice tests are that simple tense, past tense, future tense, etc.
 Preposition using in multiple choice tests are that in, on, at, etc.
 Samples of memo.
 Word and expression using in multiple choice tests are that listning information like dialogue.
 symbol using in objective is sign of traffic.
 Sample of time table and schedule
 Degrees of comparison.
The school become as sample the try out tests is in SMK Negeri 1 Limboto. I choose grade X (ten), I get one class consist of 25 students in even semester. They have study english language that expalain on language area above.
B. Objective Of The Test
Some objective of make the test are :
• Develop students’ konowledge in all skill english language
• Meansure students’ skill as long as they study English language in one even semester.
• Determine which difficult questions and easy questions for students.
• Determine where smart students and not
• To selection where students serve one’s purpose continues next level.
C. Tests Specification
in this analysis will tests enclosure of tests specification. The tests enclosure will specifics explain what tests using multiple choice tests

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
( RPP )

SMA/SMK : -
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : VII (Tujuh) / 1
Aspek / Skill : Writing
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 40 menit
Standar Kompetensi : Menjelaskan secara sederhana kegiatan yang sedang terjadi
Kompetensi Dasar : Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara Level Novice
Indikator : Peristiwa yang sedang diceritakan dengan tepat sesuai dengan tempat dan waktu kejadian :

• Grammar : present tense, past tense,and future tense.

1. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat :
a. Bertanya dan merespon ungkapan yang mengunakan kalimat masa sekarang, lampau dan masa depan
b. Bertanya dan dapat membedakan pengunaan kalimat masa sekarang, lampau dan masa depan

2. Materi Pembelajaran
a. Kalimat – kalimat sederhana dalam penggunaan sentences
1. I go to school everyday
I don’t go to school everyday
2. I went to market yesterday
I didn’t go to market yesterday
3. I will go to to your house tomorrow
I will not go to your house tomorrow
b. Pengunaan kalimat positive, negative, dan introgative
- (+) He walk to my house
- (-) He does not walk to my house
- (?) does he walk to my house? -

Metode Pembelajaran / Teknik : Three-phase technique
3. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan
a. Kegiatan Pendahuluan
- Tanya jawab berbagai hal terkait kondisi siswa
- Siswa menjawab pertanyaan tentang identitas diri
b. Kegiatan Inti
1. Membahas bentuk pola kalimat present, past dan future
2. Membuat kalimat present, past, future.
3. Membahas penggunaan positive dan negative pada kalimat present, past, future
c. Merespon Hasil Pembelajaran
1. Menanyakan kesulitan siswa selama pelajaran berlangsung
2. Menyimpulkan materi pembelajaran
3. Menugaskan siswa untuk menggunakan ungkapan-ungkapan yang dipelajari dalam situasi yang sesungguhnya.
4. Sumber Belajar
a. Buku teks yang relevan : ... ( judul, pengarang, penerbit, tahun, halaman )
b. Script simple tense
c. Tulisan kalimat simple tense yang relevan
5. Penilaian
a. Teknik : Menulis beberapa kalimat present, past, dan future
b. Bentuk : perintah tertulis
c. Instrumen: menuliskan

the expressions and give your response orally
1. Make one sentence simple prensent tense
………………………………………………………………..
2. Make one sentence simple past tense
………………………………………………………………..
3. Make one sentence simple future tense
………………………………………………………………..
.
SILABUS
NAMA SEKOLAH : SMK Negeri 1 Limboto
MATA PELAJARAN : Bahasa Inggris
KELAS/SEMESTER : X / 2
STANDAR COMPOTENSI : Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara Level Novice
ALOKASI WAKTU : 84 jam x 45 menit

Kompotensi Dasar Indikator Materi Pembelajaran Kegiatan Pembelajaran Penilaian Alokasi Waktu
Sumber Belajar
TM PS PI
1.1 Menjelaskan secara sederhana kegiatan yang sedang terjadi • Peristiwa yang sedanng terjadi diceritakan dengan tepat sesuai dengan waktu dan tempat kejadian
• Pertanyaantentang peristiwa yang sedang terjadi disampaikan dengan tepat
• Pengungkapan perasaan/pendapat tentang peristiwa yang sedang terjadi disampaikan dengan tepat • Grammar : present tense, past tense,and future tense.
• Sentece using ‘there+be’
• Prepositions : in, on, at, under, etc.
- There is a napkin on the table
• Question about events :
- How/when did it happen?
• Expression of feeling /opinions concerning an event
- I was very shocked to learn about the number of the victims.
• Listening :
- Matching picture and sentece
- Completing passages
• Speaking :
- Pronounsation practice
- Dialogue’s practice telling what’s happening in the picture
• Writing :
- Write short paragraphs based on picture • Tes lisan
- Menceritakan gambar
- Dialog

• Tes tertulis
- Melengkapi kalimat
- Menjawab soal cerita
- Membuat kalimat berdasarkan gambar



20 • Person to person
• Pictures from newspaper or megazines
• breakthrough





Kompotensi Dasar Indikator Materi Pembelajaran Kegiatan Pembelajaran Penilaian Alokasi Waktu
Sumber Belajar
TM PS PI
1.2 Memahami memo dan menu sederhana , jadwal perjalanan kendaraan umum, dan rambu-rambu lalu lintas • Pesan ditulis dalam bentuk memo yang benar
• Memo yang sudah ada dijelaskan dengan benar
• Tanda-tanda dan lambang (misalnya : rambu-rambu lalu lintas) dijelaskan dengan benar
• Berbagai macam jadwal (time table) dibuat dan dijelaskan dengan benar
• Bentuk kata sifat dan keterangan digunakan secara tepat untuk membandingkan sesuatu.
• Pertanyaan • Sample of memo
• Sample of menu
• Word and expressions to explain signs and symbol.
• Sample of time table and schedule
• Degrees of comparison :
- Bus is fast
- Train is faster than bus
- Plane is the fastest of all
- Traveling by plane is more convenient than traveling by bus
• Pronouns and reported speech
• Listning :
- Dictation
- Completing memo and menus
- Matching pictures based on signs, symbols, time tables, and schedules given
• Speaking :
- Pronounsiation practice
- Dialogue practice involving memos, menu,,sign, symbol, time tables and schedule.
- Making sentece using degrees of comparison
• Writing :
- Copleting time tables and schedule
- Writing sentences using coparative degree, pronouns and reported speech
- Composing memos and menus • Tes lisan
- Menjawab pertanyaan secara lisan
- Menjelaskan jadwal perjalanan, rambu lalu lintas, simbol dan tanda
• Tes tertulis
- Membuat memo
- Menulis menu
- Menulis jadwal
- Menjawab pertanyaan tentang menu, jadwal, memo, rambu lalu lintas. 22 • Various kinds of memos, menus, time table and schedule from different sources
• Person to person
• breakthrough






BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas : X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK UJIAN
Menjelaskan secara sederhana kegiatan yang sedang terjadi
Grammar : present tense, past tense,and future tense.





















































Peristiwa yang sedang atau telah berlalu diceritakan dengan tepat sesuai dengan waktu dan tempat kejadian
1.

2.




3.

4.


5.



6.







7.




8.




9.





10.





11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Pililah satu jawaban yang benar!
My father.......working in the office everyday
a. are b. Is c. Will d. was
The flowers in the my garden are blooming. They growwell because there......watered by the gardener everyday.
a. are b. Are being
c. Have been d. We
.........you have much money?
a. do b. Are c. Is d. will
I ...... to your home yesterday but you nothing there
a. go b. Went
c. Gone d. going
Ratih : “Don’t forget to come to our English club this afternoon”
Dewi : “Don’t worry! I ......there before four o’clock”
a. am b. Will c. Am being d. Have been
. Joe : “would you come with me to the cinema tomorrow?”
Marry : “I’d like to but tomorrow I would prefer to stay at home”
a. will stay at home
b. Will go to the cinema
c. will stay at home after going to the cinema
d. Does not decide yet
Anis : “Is your motorcycle new?”
Siska : “you must looking. It looks new, because it......cleaned everyday”
a. was b. Is being c. Has been d. Is
The manager : well, after telling me about your family, tell me briefly about your education.
The applicant : I.....from SMK in 1990 and went to the academy of tourism.
a. left b. Went out c. Finished d. Graduated
Nani : do you go shopping on Sunday?
Sri : Yes, I do
Nani : How about your mother?
Sri : No, she......., likes to stay at home.
a. does not b. Did not c. Will not d. Has not
Reny : .......the doctor in our village?
Endah : Yes, I’ve met him. He is very kind.
a. Did you meet b. Have you met c. Do you meet d. Will you meet

choice wrong word in this senteces!
I am go in the school with my friends everyday
a b c d
Do you go to the party use the gown last night?
a b c d
I will doing it if you come to my house tomorrow.
a b c d
was you getting the money from her when you singing ?
a b c d
What will be you give to your girlfriend if her
a b c d
birthday?


























































BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas : X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK DARI UJIAN
Menjelaskan secara sederhana kegiatan yang sedang terjadi
Preposition : in, on, at, and above in the pictures. • Pertanyaan tentang letak suatu benda yang sedang terjadi dinyatakan dengan tepat.














16.


17.

18.


19.


20.


21.


22.


23. Look the pictures and answers 16 – 23.













(picture 1) where’s the car?
a. in the garden b. At the traffic light c. In the street d. In the home
(picture 2) Where is the small brird fly?
On the head b. On the arm c. At the body d. In the head
(Picture 3) Where’s the key?
a. at the door b. Over the door c. In the door d. On the door
(picture 4) Where’s the Eiffel Tower?
a. at the Paris b. In the Paris c. On the Paris d. Behind the Paris
(Picture 5) Where’s the cat?
a. at the bottom b. In the stairs c. On the stairs d. Top the stairs
(picture 6) Where’s the bird?
a. on the gate b. On the human c. Over the gate d. Beside the gate
(picture 7) Where’s the Tom standing?
a. at the front of b. At the middle c. On the end d. At the end
(picture 8) Where’s the children playing?
a. on the beach b. In the beach c. Over the beach d. At the beach



















BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas : X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK DARI UJIAN
Memahami Memo dan menu sederhana, jadwal perjalanan kendaraan umum, dan rambu – rambu lalu lintas. Sample of memo • Pesan ditulis dalam bentuk memi yang benar
• Memo yang sudah ada dijelaskan dengan tepat












24





25

Read the Memoradum and answer question24 – 25












What is short form of memoradum ?
a. The front office manager
b. Purcase office supply
c. purchase 20 typewriter ribbons
d. The Purchaser

who are need the office suplies?
a. The purchaser b. The manager of office
c. The front office manager d. The staff of office

















26



27 Read the Memoradum and answer question26 – 27













What is the short form of the letter?
a. staff meeting b. all feeling relaxed after holiday
c. meeting at 2 p.m d. talk about new projects

What is the planning meeting ?
a. to talk about holiday b. meeting at 2 p.m until 6 p.m
c. to talk about new project d. Meeting with James Wilton






BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas : X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK DARI UJIAN
• Word and expression to explain sign and simbol :
- That “P” sign mean you can park here.
- The symbol “lady” means the toilet is for woman • Tanda-tanda dan lambang (misalnya : rambu lalu lintas) dijelaskan dengan benar

28




29





30 Pililah jawaban yang tepat dengan melihatmaksu dari simbol !

What is the sign mean?
a. road construction ahead b. steep hill ahead
c. reserved for wheelchairs d. U-turn here


What is the sign mean?
a. keep left b. give away
c. turn left d. No entry


What is the sign mean?
a. road construction ahead b. for wheelchairs
c. steep hill ahead d. U-tirn here









BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas : X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK DARI UJIAN
• Sample of time and schedule in dialogue form • Berbagai macam jadwal (time table)dibuat dan dijelaskan dengan benar










31



32



33 Read this dialogue and answers question 31 – 33!

Travel Agent : Can I help you?
Tourist : Yes, I would like go to surabay.
……………………………? (1)
Travel Agent : You can take bus number…….
Tourist : ……………………………..? (2)
Travel Agent : it is about 7 o’clock
Tourist : ……………………………..? (3)
Travel Agent : Rp. 7.500

What is tourist’s dialogue to travel agent in number 1?
a. Which bus goes to surabaya? b. Where the bus goes to Surabay?
c. Could I goes to Surabaya ? d. Can I take the bus to Surabay ?

What is tourist’s dialogue to travel agent in number 2?
a. What time it is? b. what times about the bus will go?
c. How about the bus will go? d. What is times now?

What is tourist’s dialogue to travel agent in number 3?
a. How much Money you have?
b. do you have much money to take the bus?
c. How much money you get?
d. How much money to take the bus?
BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas :X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK DARI UJIAN
• Sample of menu • Menu ditulis dengan jelas dan tepat

34


35


36 Listen dialogue from tape recorder and answer question 34 – 36!

What are food Nina orders to customer?
a. coffee drink b. tomato soup and stek
c. water d. steak and water
What are vegetables Nina like ?
a. Potatoes and cabbage b. potatoes, pees, and carrols
c. just salad d. potatoes, pees, and salad
What is drink Nina order ?
a. a glass of drink b. a bottle of white wine
c. a bottle of red wine d. coffee drink


37

38

39

40

41
choice wrong word in this senteces!

Why don’t you drop in for a dringking tomorrow night ?
a b c d
Few people nowdays cats the famous bacon and eggs
a b c d
In a retaurant you usually giving your order to the waiter ofwaiteress
A b c d
These ingrediacnts may included meat, fruits, vegetables, etc.
A b c d
Does she has any iced tea?
a b c d

BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas : X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK DARI UJIAN
• Degrees of comparison :
- Bus is fast
- Train is faster than the bus
- Plane is the fastest of all • Bentuk kata sifat dan digunakan secara tepat untuk membandingkan sesuatu

42



43


44


45



46

47


48

choice and determine comparison form in senteces!

Messy is older than sisy. What is the comparison form the underline sentence?
a. positive b. comparative
c. superlative d. positve and superlative
The clothes are monst expensive than shoes. What is comparison form the underline sentece?
a. comparative b. positive c. superlative d. negative
Justin as tall as Harry. What is comparison form the underline sentence?
a. comparative b. positive c. negative d. superlative
she more slowly than her sister. What is comparison form the underline sentece?
Superlative b. negative c. positive d. comparative

The radio (cheap) than the television. What is the superlative?
a. more cheap b. cheaper c. cheapest d. most cheap
A car is (confortable) than a motorcycle. What is the superlative?
a. more confortable b. most confortable
c. as confortable as d. confortablest
this day (good) than yesterday. What is the comparative?
a. well b. gooder c. better d. goodest
BLANGKO KISI – KISI SOAL SEMESTER
TAHUN PELAJARAN 2009/2010

Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Penyusun :
Satuan Pendidikan : Semester : II (dua)
Standar Kompotensi : Kelas : X Akuntansi

KOMPOTENSI DASAR RUANG LINGKUP MATERI INDIKATOR NO SOAL SOAL ASPEK DARI UJIAN
• Guess handling
- What can I do for you • Ungkapan untuk menangani tamu rumah, hotel, dll. Diperagakan oleh dengan benar








49

50 Listen this dialogue and answer missing word!


Mr. Edwin : good evening Mrs. Hadi how are you?
Mr. Hadi : I fine. Please come in Mr. Edwin
Mr. Edwin : Tahk you. I’d like (1)……….Mr. Hadi is he in?
Mrs. Hadi : Yes, please (2)…….I call him


What is missing word in number 1?
a. to talk to b. meet you c. come in to d. thank you

what is missing word in number 2?
a. sit down here b. meet him
c. I call you d. he is not in








CHAPTER II
ANALYSIS


A. Analysis Test Items
In this analysis test items will explain about assess of test multiple choice. Result of examination did of students become my analysis. The test items are lesson of even semester. Students follow this examination about 25 people, class X (ten) accountancy, Senior high school in SMK Negeri 1 Limboto. I choose 1 class as my sample.
In case, we could know students knowlendge about English Language. For to know it, there are some enclosure. Its that :
 Items difficulty analysis
This analysis determine how much students get right answers and how much students get wrong answer. From the determine next we could determine again how much total students in upper and lower group, with using formula. The formula is that :
- Choose 27% of the students to compare the result of the upper and lower group
- Formula IF = N correct / total
This analysis is table form
 Items distrimination
The using this analysis to know total students in upper and lower group, with using formula IF = N Correct / N Total
 Distreactor efficiency analysis
The analysis about to copare how much students in upper and lower group get right answers in every items test. This analysis is table form
The three analysis test items undermetioned below.

















CHAPTER III
DISCUSSION


A. The Result of Analysis
According to the result of analysis, we could get conclussion from three points as process toget result of assesment the tests. The result are :
1. Items Difficulty Analysis
The sample of analysis consist of 25 students have get result :
a. From 25 students there are some students get high right answers, from 50 questions are 32 right answers. So there are some students get wrong answers about 18 questions. From 25 students there are some students get low right answers, from 50 questions are 15 right answers. So there are some students get wrong answers about 35 questions.
b. Items difficulty analysis, I just analysis three difficult items, are that;
 Question number 31 only 5 students get right answers. The question about sample of time and schedule in dialogue form.
 Question number 4 only 7 students get right answers. The question about grammar past tense.
 Question number 18 only 7 students get right answers. The question about preoposition; in, on, at, etc. in the pictures.
c. with using formula, Choose 27% of the students to compare the result of the upper and lower group; 27% x2 5=7 students upper and lower group. 7 students upper and lower group have determined with signed with color.
2. Items Distrimination
Thought this table we get result of analysis about items facility (IF). For get the items fasility we must using formula; IF = N correct / N total. N correct, we get formula; total students in upper and and lower group. We know from part of items difficulty analysis, if there are 7 students upper and lower group of result the formula.
Using IF upper group = N correct/N total, we have found average the IF upper group students . It was about 0,61 upper group students. Using IF upper group = N correct/N total, we have found average the IF lower group students. It was about 0,41 lower group students.
For to compare the upper and lower group students using ID = IF Upper – IF Lower group students. We know if the average IF Upper is 0,61 and IF Lower is 0,41. So they included in formula we could get average of compare the upper and lower group students. From the table have know the average upper and lower group students are 0,21 IF. From it, the conclusion compare the upper group students between lower group students are 0,21 ID.
3. Distreactor Efficiency Analysis
In this table , I analysis average upper and lower group students get right answers every items. The items more cleaning the letter of multiple choice. In this every items I want to find how much upper and lower group students get right answer of detail multiple choice.
High students group consist 7 students the average get right answers are 4 students, and Low students group consist 7 students the average get right answers are 3 students. So, they different 1 students each other.

Linguistik Terapan

A. PENDAHULUAN
Dalam mempelajari bahasa perlu adanya aturan-aturan dalam menggunakannya. Adapun dalam mempelajari bahasa seseorang harus mengetahui tentang asal usul bahasa tersebut. untuk mempelajari bahasa tersebut maka digunakanlah Linguistik sebagai teori bahasa.
Linguistik sebagai studi ilmiah tentang bahasa, yang mempelajari bahasa manusia dan cara mempelajarinya secara ilmiah. dengan mempelajari lingusitik berarti kita mempelajari teori bahasa pada umumnya dan bukan teori bahasa tertentu. dengan mempelajari linguistik kita mendapat keterangan tentang objeknya, tataran-tatarannya, struktur bahasa, sejarahnya, dan tentang teeori dan aliran yang berkembang dalam linguistik. pendek kata teori bahasa pada umumnya.
Meskipun demikian jangan sampai kita menyamakan istilah linguistik dengan Gramma, sebab istilah gramma lebih mengacu kepada pemerian morfologi dan sintaksis. di dalam buku tatata bahasa kita memperoleh informasi tentang aturan, kaidah norma suatu bahasa, sendangkan di dalam buku-buku linguistik kita akan memperoleh keterangan bahasa pada umumnya, misalnya memperoleh keterangan tentang fonologi, morfologi, sintaksis, semantik, pandangan tradisional, aliran struktural, dan aliran transformasi. linguistik lebih mengacu kepada teori, sendangkan gramma lebih mementingkan kaidah atau norma yang terdapat dalam bahasa tertentu. meskipun demikian keduanya merupakan hasil studi empiris, diperoleh dari pengalaman dan kenyataan yang terdapat di dalam kehidupan manusia.







B. Rumusan masalah
Apakah yang disebut dengan linguistik terapan?

C. Pembahasan
Linguistik adalah studi bahasa manusia secara ilmiah, yaitu mempelajari bahasa manusia dan cara mempelajarinya harus secara ilmiah. dilihat dari pemidangannya, linguistik dibagi atas 4 bidang yaitu :
1. Linguistik umum,
2. Linguistik terapan,
3. Linguistik teoritis dan
4. linguistik historis
dan dilihat dari sifat telahaahnya linguistik dapat dibagi atas :
1. linguistik mikro
2. linguistk makro
dilihat dari segi pendekatan objek, linguistik dibagi atas :
1. linguistik deskriptif,
2. linguistik historis dan
3. linguisik komparatif
Dilihat dari dari segi isntrumen yang digunakan, linguistik dapat disebut adanya linguistik komputer. selanjutnya dilihat dari hubungannya dengan ilmu-ilmu yang lain, dikenal :
1. Psikolinguistik
2. Sosiolinguistik gabungan linguistik dengan sosiolinguistik
3. Antropolonguistik, gabungan antara linguistik dan statistik
4. Neurolinguistik, gabungan antara linguistik dengan neurologi
5. Biolinguistik, gabungan antara linguistik dengan biologi
6. Linguistik aljabar, gabungan antara linguistik dengan aljabar
Dilihat dari segi penerapannya, di dalam linguistik dikenal istilah linguistik terapan (applied linguistics). disamping itu dikenal pula dialektodologi, leksikologi, dan leksikostatistik, dan glotokronilogi, sendangkan dilihat dari segi alirah atau teori mendasarinya, linguistik dapat dibagi atas lignuistik struktural dan linguistik transformasi.
Dari uraian diatas terlihat linguistik terapan hanya merupakan salah satu subdisiplin linguistik. Kata terapan, menerapkan, dalam BI (bahasa Indonesia) berpadanan dengan to apply dalam bahasa inggris. kata to apply dalam bahasa inggris bermakna, mengerahkan. Sendangkan kata applied bermakna put to practical use. Dari kata apllied itu muncul gabungan kata apllied linguistics yang dapat dipadankan dengan gabungan kata linguistik terapan dala BI.
Ada juga linguis yang kurang setuju dengan istilah apllied linguistics, misalnya Spolsky (1978) dan ia lebih setuju dengan istilah educational linguistics (linguistk pendidikan). alasannya, ruang lingkup terapan lebih luas dari linguistik pendidikan, karena linguistik terapan mempelajari penerjemahan, leksikografi, perencanaan bahasa dan aspek-aspek lain lagi. selain itu linguistik terapan mempersoalkan bagaimana penerapan linguistik itu sendiri.
kini timbul pertanyaan apa yang disebut dengan linguistik terapan? untuk itu akan dikemukakan beberapa batasan yang diajukan oleh beberapa pakar dalam bidang ini. yaitu :
Linguistik terapan mengacu kepada penggunaan oleh guru bahasa mengenai temuan ahli bahasa Wals (dalam Els dkk, 1977:22). ahli bahasa menghasilkan perian dan teori bahasa, sendangkan guru bahasa menggunakan hasil temuan itu dalam proses belajar mengajar yang dilaksanakan.
Linguistik terapan adalah kumpulan istilah untuk penerapan keahlian dalam linguistik yang dikaitkan dengan bidang praktis Hartmann dan Stork (1972:17). Dengan kata lain, teori linguistik digunakan untuk tujuan praktis.
Linguistik terapan adalah pemanfaatan pengetahuan tentang alamiah bahasa yang dihasilkan oleh peneliti bahasa yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan keberhasilgunaan tugas-tugas praktis yang menggunakan bahasa sebagai komponen inti Corder (1974:5). Dalam tulisan lain, Corder (1973:10) menyatakan : “ linguistik terapan adalah penerapan pengetahuan linguistik di dalam berbagai objek adalah suatu aktivitas. aktivitas dalam linguistik terapan bukanlah studi teoritis, melainkan penerapan temuan dalam studi teoritis. Maka orang yang bergerak dalam linguistik terapan adalah pengguna teori dan bukan penghasil teori, pengguna teori terapan bukanlah ahli bahasa yang menghasilkan teori bahasa. mereka hanya pengguna teroi yang dihasilkan oleh pakar bahasa atau ahli bahasa.
Dalam kaitan ini Bell (1987:13) berkata, ahli bahasa dengan guru bahasa berbeda dalam beberapa hal, misalnya hal yang berhubungan dengan tujuan, metode, dan sikap. tujuan ahli bahasa yakni menghasilkan teori dan perian bahasa, sendangkan guru bahasa bertujuan agar si terdidik segera tuntas berbahasa dalam bahasa yang diajarkan. dilihat dari segi metode, metode ahli bahasa bersifat formal dan abstrak, sendangkan metode guru bahasa bersifat fungsional dan praktis. dilihat dari segi sikap, seorang ahli bahasa melihat bahasa sebagai seperangkat sistem, sendangkan guru bahasa melihat bahasa sebagai perangkat keterampilan.
Berdasarkan penjelasan di atas dapat ditarik kesimpulan :
1. ada usaha penerapan linguistik dalam bidang praktis
2. Linguistik terapan bukan teori, tetapi penerapan teori, dalam hal ini teori lingistik
3. Tujuannya, yakni meningkatkan tugas-tugas praktis dengan jalan memusatkn perhatian pada bahasa.
4. Mereka yang bergerak dalam bidang linguistik terapan bukanlah ahli penghasil teori kebahasaaan, tetapi pemakai teori lingustik yang dihasilkan oleh ahli bahasa.
Dari beberapa teori yang telah diungkapkan pada penjelasan diatas, saya dapat menyimpulkan bahwa linguistik terapan lebih berkaitan dengan bahasa dan Linguistik terapan lebih banyak diarahkan pada penerapan linguistik dalam pengajaran bahasa.
A. Ruang Lingkup Linguistik Terapan
Spolsky (1978:1-2) mengatakan bahwa ruang lingkup linguistik sangat luas. Ia menyebutkan bidang garapan linguistik terapan antara lain :
- Penerjemahan
- Lesikografi
- Perencanaan Bahasa
Kalau di ikuti hasil kongres AILA (Association Internationale de Linguistique Applique) bahwa ruang lingkup linguistik terapan berhubungan dengan :
- Pengajaran Bahasa
- Bahasa dalam kehidupan masyarakat (sosiolinguistik)
- Bahasa yang berkaitan dengan gejala jiwa manusia (Psikolinguistik)
- Penerjemahan
- Leksikologi
- Linguistik komputer
- Bahasa yang dikaitkan dengan gangguan saraf (Neurolinguistik)
- Pembuatan peta bahasa (dialektologi)
Tapi menurut Bell dan Corder linguistik terapan lebih banyak diarahkan pada pengajaran bahasa. Berikut pendapat mereka:
Menurut Bell (1987:13) “applied linguistics is concerned with the identification and analysis of certain class of problems with erise in the setting up and carrying out of language teaching programmers, and with the provisions of the answer or part of the answer to them”.
Disini dikatakan bahwa, linguistik terapan berkaitan dengan pengenalan dan analisis beberapa golongan masalah yang timbul pada tata cara dan mempengaruhi programmer pengajaran bahasa dan dengan ketentuan yang seperti diinginkan oleh mereka.
Menurut Corder “apllied linguistics is a set of related activities or techniques mediating between the various theoretical accounts of human language on the one hand and the practical activities of language teaching on the other”.
Jadi linguistik terapan adalah rangkain hubungan aktivitas atau tehknik yang menengahi antara kententuan catatan teori bahasa manusia pada pada satu sisi dan activitas praktis pengajaran bahasa pada sisi lain.
Dapat disimpulkan bahwa linguistik terapan lebih berhubungan dengan pengajaran bahasa, yang berhubungan dengan beberapa ruang lingkup bidang linguistik terapan.
B.


















LINGUISTIK TERAPAN

OLEH




SILFIA EKA SARI JUSUF
321 407 089





JURUSAN BAHASA INGGRIS
FAKULTAS SASTRA DAN BUDAYA
UNIVERSITAS NEGERI GORONTALO
2010

Friday, May 28, 2010

child read suah yasiin.

beatiful voice of child who read surah yasiin. make we remember ALLAH SWT.
klik this video to hear it.
video

Saturday, March 20, 2010

Friday, March 19, 2010

lagi dapat

ini lagi udah gw coba n lumayan
http://www.onlinevideoconverter.com/video-converter.aspx#
http://www.onlinevideoconverter.com

Sunday, January 17, 2010